What is glaucoma?
Glaucoma, its symptoms
Glaucoma is a fairly common disease in people over the age of forty. This disease is also found in newborns (congenital glaucoma) and in young people (juvenile glaucoma). The disease has three main features:
- narrowing the field of view,
- increase in intraocular pressure,
- changes in the optic nerve.
Intraocular pressure increases due to the formation of intraocular fluid in an excessive amount, as well as violation of its elimination through the drainage system of the eyes.Heredity plays an important role in the appearance of glaucoma. In the presence of this disease, relatives should be regularly examined by an ophthalmologist at least once a year.
The following symptoms indicate an increase in intraocular pressure:
- a feeling of discomfort in the eyes, a feeling of tension and heaviness,
- the appearance of the "grid" before the eyes, blurred vision,
- slight pain in the eyes,
- slight pain around the eyes,
- a feeling of moisturizing the eyes,
- the appearance of "rainbow circles", if you look at the source of light (for example, a luminous bulb),
- blurred vision at dusk.
Forms of glaucoma
There are several forms of the disease. The most common is open-angle glaucoma. In this form, clearly defined symptoms are absent. A person does not feel some increase in intraocular pressure, which adversely affects the optic nerve.
Angle-closure glaucoma is often manifested in the form of seizures. Characteristic features of this form of the disease are a significant increase in intraocular pressure (up to 60-80 mm Hg), headache, severe pain in the eye. Often there is vomiting, nausea, general weakness. Vision in the affected eye is sharply reduced. Congenital glaucoma is diagnosed by increased IOP, in some cases an increase in the size of the eyeballs is observed. The causes of this form of the disease are congenital disorders of the structure of the drainage apparatus of the eye.With the complication of other eye diseases, secondary glaucoma occurs. The reason for the increase in intraocular pressure in this form of the disease is a violation of the outflow of intraocular fluid.
In case of glaucoma, normal or low intraocular pressure may occur, which occurs due to impaired blood supply to the eye. Glaucoma is not a contagious disease. Often it affects both eyes, but not at the same time. In the other eye, it may appear in a few months or years.
Video: Robert Noecker, MD, explains what is glaucoma and what eye pressure means?
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